Triangulum (Eindhoven, Manchester, Stavanger, Leipzig, Sabadell, Prague, and Tianjin - European Countries and China)

Case Study

Triangulum (Eindhoven, Manchester, Stavanger, Leipzig, Sabadell, Prague, and Tianjin - European Countries and China)

The Triangulum “lighthouse” programme was launched in February 2015 and it will be developed until January 2020. Triangulum received €25.4 million funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (the overall budget of the programme is €29.5 million). Its approach is focused on demonstrating, disseminating, and replicating innovative integrated urban solutions and a framework to co-create future smart cities through international cooperation.

The Lighthouse Cities (Eindhoven, Manchester, and Stavanger) will focus on developing and implementing smart solutions in the field of sustainable mobility, energy, ICT, and smart business opportunities, while the Follower Cities (Leipzig, Sabadell, and Prague) will replicate these solutions. The Observer City of Tianjin participates in the project providing critical policy development work, while at the same time presenting opportunities for the Triangulum business partners to access and exploit the Chinese smart city market.

The Framework that the Triangulum programme is developing comprises a project development guideline and an assessment tool for decision-making, to facilitate replication of the smart city solutions in the Follower Cities (and other interested municipalities) after successful project implementation in the Lighthouse Cities.

Some of the activities that are currently being developed in the cities are: Central Energy Plant in Stavanger (the project transforms the city’s wastewater to energy and reduces CO2 emissions by 80%); portal for city-related open data in Manchester (Machester-I) and “Innovation Challenges” for web developers; smart lighting poles and smart interactive trail of lights to guide pedestrians in Eindhoven; public transport mobility stations and innovative heat storage station in Leipzig.

Agencie(s) involved in the case

Improved e-Governance and citizen services;

Improved Water management;

Improved Energy management;

Improved Urban Lighting;

Improved Intelligent Transport Systems;

Improved supports for business.


Official objectives as defined in the programme’s Mission Statement:

"1. Demonstrate real smart city solutions, facilitate, and replicate them in the Follower Cities;

2. Demonstrate functioning business models and social value models for smart cities;

3. Demonstrate and test approaches making them measurable, traceable, and “bankable” (in order to minimise risks for future smart city investments);

4. Co-create smart cities with the citizens (to ensure that the solutions are demand-driven and contribute towards real life improvement of the cities);

5. Transfer knowledge about smart city implementation (mutual learning and innovative forms of collaboration between city administrations, private sector corporations, civil society and research institutions);

6. Seek to activate and enable entrepreneurs, SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) and young talents by creating an attractive eco-system and by co-creating smart districts and associated solutions;

7. Develop and implement a smart city reference model (to enable future replication and standardised approaches of crosscutting solutions for urban energy, buildings, and mobility technologies);

8. Sustainable transformation of existing buildings and demonstration of solutions for a shifting energy demand market (core propositions for demonstrating data-driven value creation in cities);

9. Build upon the strong replication potential of the Follower Cities (each city contributes with its individual strengths to develop and deliver successful smart city solutions);

10. Contribute to and strengthen the European Smart Cities movement."


A consortium of 22 partners from Municipalities (Lighthouse Cities of Eindhoven, Manchester, and Stavanger; Follower Cities of Leipzig, Sabadell, and Prague; Observer City of Tianjin), Universities and Research Entities, and Business Organisations. Project coordination: Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering (IAO), Universität Stuttgart, and Steinbeis-Europa-Zentrum.