Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore, is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Thanjavur is an important center of South Indian religion, art, and architecture. Its many temples include the 11th-century Brihadeeswarar Temple, a vast Chola dynasty–era complex with a frescoed interior, which are UNESCO World Heritage Monuments too. The foremost among these, the Brihadeeswara Temple, is located in the centre of the city. Thanjavur is also home to Tanjore painting, a painting style unique to the region. Thanjavur Maratha Palace is home to the centuries-old Saraswathi Mahal Library, with palm-leaf manuscripts, and Thanjavur Art Gallery, with bronze statues. Tamil University Museum displays coins, folk artifacts and musical instruments.
The major occupation of the inhabitants of the city is tourism and service-oriented industry, while the traditional occupation is agriculture.Thanjavur is the headquarters of the Thanjavur District. The city is an important agricultural centre located in the Cauvery Delta and is known as the "Rice bowl of Tamil Nadu". Thanjavur is an important centre of silk weaving in Tamil Nadu. There were 200 silk weaving units in the city in 1991 with around 80,000 people working in them
The railway line connecting Tiruchirappalli Junction railway station to Chennai Egmore via Thanjavur, the Main Line is a historical line established by South Indian Railway Company in 1879
In the early 1990s, Thanjavur was connected with Chennai via the Vayudoot flight service, which was stopped due to poor patronage. A full-fledged air force station is operational at Thanjavur. The nearest airport is Tiruchirapalli International Airport. The nearest Seaport is located at Nagapattinam.