Themes comprise the overarching main strategic framework aligned to the UN’s three dimensions of sustainable development. The United Nations defines sustainable development as the guiding principle for balanced long-term global development consisting of the three dimensions of economic development, social development and environmental protection, so that if any one dimension is weak then the system as a whole is unsustainable.

The ability to generate income and employment for the livelihood of inhabitants: ICT and physical infrastructures, innovation, trade (including e-commerce and export/import), employment, productivity and the public sector. Can also cover competitiveness, sustainable growth, income, wages, investment, savings, jobs, etc.

The ability to ensure welfare and inclusiveness of the citizens can be equally delivered despite differences in class, race or gender: education, health, safety (including disaster relief, emergency and ICT), housing, culture (including the ability to promote cultural identity and adequacy, value and emotional well-being) and social inclusion. Can also cover cohesion, equity, empowerment, quality of life, awareness, knowledge and skills, capabilities and capacities, etc.

The ability to protect future quality and reproducibility of natural resources: air quality, water and sanitation, noise, environmental quality, biodiversity and energy. Can also cover the physical environment such as infrastructures, utilities, facilities, amenities, etc., and the natural environment such as land and produce, forests and forest produce, water and aquatic resources, pollution, climate change, etc.